All posts by cncmachinist

Basic Programming Terms – CNC Structure In 4 Steps


The smallest unit in CNC programming is a character. It can be a letter, digit, or a symbol. They are combined to make ‘words’ in the CNC language. A letter is just what it sounds like; a letter from the alphabet. While 26 letters are usable for programming, read this article for a list of commonly used letter codes.

There’s ten digits, 0 to 9, used to make numbers in programs. They are used in two different ways; with or without decimals. It depends on the mode, as well as the control. A number can also be used in place of a decimal-number if the controller allows it.

Symbols are the third type of character used in CNC programming. It depends on the control options, but the symbols used most often include: a decimal point, parenthesis, minus sign, as well as a percentage sign.


Words are the next step in the structure, and they are simply a combination of characters. A word consists of a capital letter, followed by a number, and sometimes a symbol, depending on the code. Words are used to specify speed, feedrate, position, commands, and other functions.


Basic Programming Terms - CNC Structure In 4 Steps

A Block, also known as a Sequence block, is multiple Words. A word is just one piece of information or instruction, while a block uses at least one word to make a complete command or cycle. Blocks are written on separate lines, and are separated by an “End-of-Block” code.


How do you get a CNC Program? You put a bunch of Blocks together that will machine a part. As simple as that sounds, you have to have all the right characters and words to get each command to work. A program will begin with a program number, and will be sequenced by blocks in order of operations, and end with a program stop or cancel code.

Character > Word > Block > Program

3D Printable Objects – Printers For Home Hobbyists

Here at, we want to educate you on everything CNC manufacturing related, and that’s why I’m taking the time to explain what a 3D printer is, and why they are making people thousands of dollars while doing it right in their home.

First of all, what exactly is a 3D printer, and what does it do? Another name for these printers is a rapid-prototype machine, because it can make you a one-off part without having to ‘cut’ or machine any materials.

That’s right, it actually ‘prints’ out a a real part that you can hold and use, as opposed to my typical 2D printer that prints out flat pieces of paper… Want to make action figures, model cars, tools, or a special replacement part that you can’t buy in any stores?! These machines really are amazing, and everyone that finds out about them are in awe of what they can do.

3D Printer
3D Printer

Depending on how sophisticated the printer is, you can take and scan a P-51 Mustang scale model airplane, transfer it to the computer program, pick your colors, and then click print. It will come out just like your existing plane, with moving parts and all!

If you’ve ever seen those older movies where they punch in their request onto a microwave-like machine, and out comes their order in seconds, a 3D printer is very similar, albeit the cycle time is a little longer.

While pretty much all of the personal or hobby printers are restricted to mostly plastics or composites, there are machines out there that can print out real metals, also known as additive manufacturing, but that’s for another article…

Drill, Bore, Ream, Oh Why!?

Drilling, boring, then reaming is the proper order of operation when machining a hole. This is just one of the fundamentals you will learn in Machining 101. Whether you’re on a manual mill or a cnc milling center, this process will get you the most accurate hole size.

Why can’t I just drill? That is a very good question, if you’re just starting out as a machinist or are in training, you probably won’t know how every kind of tool is going to perform. While a drill, even when spot drilled, can make a nice looking hole, it can’t always hole a tight diameter or circularity tolerance. A standard drill can walk, and that can change the location if it’s a thru-hole. Drills are not always ground perfect, resulting in one lip bigger than the other. This causes the hole to be more egg-shaped and often over-sized.

Want a perfectly circular hole? The boring bar comes next because, unlike a drill, it is sturdy and will follow the same path all the way down the hole. A drill is floating in its holder that causes run-out, but a boring bar is sturdy and will make a circular hole, whether the existing hole is already or not.

Boring Bar and Inserts
Boring Bar and Inserts

The reamer comes last if you want an accurate hole. You should only leave several thousandths left after boring, depending on what material you’re cutting. A reamer is much more precise than a drill, but it will follow the path of the existing hole. This is why you should bore the hole prior to reaming, otherwise the ream will follow the path of the drilled hole, which may not be straight. A bore is accurate, but you can get a better finish with a reamer, and it can still hold tenths for a tolerance if you have a good reamer.

How To Read A Part Blueprint For CNC Machinists

Reading a blueprint accurately is extremely important in the machining industry. If you can’t decipher a print or flip your views (more on that later), you’ll have a hard time meeting the part requirements.

The first thing to look at is the job description box. It has all of the material, part number, revision, date, and other information about the part. If you’re just an operator or a set-up guy, the most important things are the material and part number, as well as the tolerances if given. Always check to see if there are revisions, however, in case the program needs to be modified to meet the new dimensions/tolerances.

If you’re on a milling, look at the overall length of the part. If it’s square or rectangular, how wide is it, and what is the height? What are the tolerances? If there’s no specified, there’s generally a set tolerance in the description box that depends on how many decimal places the dimension is. So, if the part is 4.75″ long, and the tolerance for .xx decimal numbers is .01, then the tolerance is 4.750″ + or – .010″.

If there’s any milling features involved, you’ll need to check the length, depth, width, and possibly angles of them too. Calipers, micrometers, and depth mics are good tools to check dimensions quickly, but if you need to check something that has a very tight tolerance, more expensive tools or machines are required.

Basic Part Blueprint
Basic Part Blueprint

Holes are pretty straight forward. They can be drilled, bored, reamed, and even circulated-interpolated by an end mill. Look at the blueprint to see if the specified hole is a through or blind hole with a called out depth. If it has a given depth, does it need to be a flat bottom, or can it be left with a drill bottom? If a hole has a tolerance of .002″ or less, ground gauge pins should be used. Large holes can be checked with more expensive tools, depending on what your machine shop has.

Counter-bores and counter-sinks are usually machined in relation to holes. A counter-bore will have dimensions for the diameter and depth of the bore. A counter-sink will have diameter dimension, as well as a given angle. Not all counter-sinks called out are 90 degrees, so always pay close attention.

Another common feature to look for is threaded holes. They can be tapped or cut with a thread mill. Nothing too special about threads either, just check the minor diameter with go and no-go gauge pins, as well as the major diameter of the thread with thread gauges. Your shop should have a collection of thread gauges of all common thread sizes and pitches, as well as any specialty thread required by a customer.

Are there any radius features on the part blueprint? A radius can with be milled by and end mill, or cut with a radius tool cutter. If you are running a part that has been made in the past, then you shouldn’t have to adjust the tool or radius offset much, if at all. The radius should make a perfect blend with the flats. Check it with a radius gauge or optical comparator.

A chamfer is often used on the edges of a part as a part of deburring and to make the part look much cleaner and more professional. It is a simple call-out on the print, as you only need to check the size and angle of the chamfer. If you have a large amount of tolerance, you can check it with a depth micrometer.

Also, hole or feature dimensions are very critical. They will usually come from the origin or the edge of the part. Dimensions often come from part features as well. Such as if there’s a line of several holes, the first hole dimension will come from the part edge. then the second hole dimension will come from the location of the first hole, and so on and so forth.

In reality, reading a blueprint isn’t all that difficult, it’s basically just a lot of common sense, and memorizing certain manufacturing symbols. Don’t be intimidated by a print with lots of numbers and detail, just take your time and read everything carefully. In fact, I would rather have a part blueprint with too much information than too little, although having the print cluttered with extra numbers is not efficient.

Do CNC Machinists Need To Go To School?

So you’ve decided that you want to be a full-time Machinist for a career, but you’re not sure if you can find a job without going to school… If you haven’t already, check out my article on CNC machinist training.

While many career’s start right after or during college these days, there are a lot of jobs that don’t necessarily require schooling. Years ago you could start out as a shop helper during weeknights while going to high school, but now it seems like you need take at least two years of post-secondary education to get any ‘real job’.

To answer the question plainly, no, you don’t NEED to go to school to be a full-time cnc machinist. There’s plenty of machinists that didn’t go to school and are doing well. In fact, there’s some guys that never took anything past high and ended up owning their own machine shop.

With that said, it may be hard to find a job in the manufacturing industry with little to no experience. In this case, the old saying, “It pays to know” couldn’t be more true. If you have a friend or a friend of a parent works in a local machine shop, ask them if there are any openings at that shop. If they don’t, that friend will usually suggest another shop or be on the lookout if they know you well enough.Do CNC Machinists Need To Go To School

Going to your local Tech school for Machining classes will definitely give you a head start, or an accelerated start if you just graduated from high school and already work in a manufacturing shop. You will be able learn all of your basic machining 101 knowledge, and then work your way up from there until you can program and make your own parts.

There’s shops out there that will start from scratch if they find a young and motivated worker, but the learning process will usually be more gradual over a longer period of time. Unfortunately, those can be hard to come by, and the wages probably won’t be enough to live off of.

One of the biggest problems is that most companies want someone with several years of machining experience, and don’t want to spend their time trying to train someone in, hoping that they will weed out the ill-performing machinists. While they may work some of the time, there’s no real way to tell how good of a machinist someone is until you give them work to do. You can take someone with 1-2 years of schooling and a year of on the job experience, and they might do better than another machinist that has been in the industry for 10+ years.

In the end, it’s up to YOU to decide what to do. The smartest route would be starting right off the bat when you graduate high school and going to a Tech school for machining, and possibly finding a small shop to work for at the same time. However, not everyone is young enough to do that. For those that are older and need a steady full-time job, there are people that take machining classes during the day, and go do to work at night. It can be gruesome, but if you work hard at it and really think that you want to pursue this great career, I encourage you to put the hammer down and quit slacking off!

Good luck!

CNC Machinist Training Course Curriculum Classes

If you’re looking to go to school for machine trades and want to know what the general course curriculum is, you’re in the right place. While not every school is the same, this will be a good break-down of what most Tech schools and colleges that have a complete machining course will look like.

(Semester 1):

Basic Machine Tech Classes

For your first semester you will be taught machining 101. Before you even consider running a high-tech and expensive CNC machine, you need to learn how to cut, drill and turn parts on a manual mill, lathe, grinder, and any other process you may use in a shop.

Machining, in a sense, is not very hard to understand. It’s just mill, drilling, reaming, and turning your part to the specified dimensions given to you on a blueprint, right? However, if that’s all it was, everyone would have their own shop and home and making a living in no time. Fortunately, for those that want to be properly trained, that’s not the case.

There are some many variables involved when machining that you cannot become a highly skilled machinist in a matter of a couple years, even if you’re taught by a Class A machinist. Proper feeds and speeds, how certain materials react to different tools, how quickly tools wear out when doing production runs, how to hold a complex part to hold tolerances, or what to do if your endmill is chattering with the suggested surface foot.

All of these things you will learn over time, but for now, you should try and take in and remember as much as possible in the first semester. Slacking off in Tech school is not a good idea, and the faster you learn the basics of machining, the quicker you will be to making a living in a real machine shop.

Blueprint Reading

Reading a blueprint is part of the basics that you must know how to do if you want to be a machinist. Telling the difference between a front and top side view is one of the first things you learn in school. However, some ‘machinists’ that have been in the industry for decades have a difficult time comprehending it.

Dimensions, hole locations and tolerances, depth call-outs, and thread sizes are just some of the many things you will see on part blueprints.

College Trig/Tech Math

Math and basic trigonometry skills are also required to figure out part dimensions and angles. Have you heard the term “SohCahToa”? If not, it’s a good way to remember when and how to use your basic trig functions; Sine, Cosine, and Tangent. If you know how to use these functions to find the length of an unknown dimension or angle for programming purposes, then you’re ahead of the field.

(Semester 2):

Machine Tech Classes

Second semester will go more in-depth for your machine tech classes. You will machine more complex parts, be required to hold tighter tolerances, and

In addition, you’ll learn more about how different materials react and what ways to machine them efficiently. Using the right tooling is very important, and you will find out how many more machining tools can get the job done, and get it done in less time.learn more about workholding a part.


Geometric dimensioning and tolerancing can be a fairly complex class at times. However, it is very important to know if you want to machine and inspect your own parts. Part of the class is theory, but a lot of it requires you to pay special attention to what the blueprint calls out.

Flatness, perpendicularity, circularity, and straightness are just some of the callouts you may see on a part blueprint. A lot of them are straightforward, but it may result in you using special tooling to meet the specified tolerance. If not, you may end up with rejected parts and a lot of money wasted.

CNC Programming

Yes, we finally reach the first CNC programming class. No, you probably won’t be machining any/many parts on a CNC machine this semester, but you will do some simple navigating through the controllers to get a feel for how they work. For actual CNC programming your teacher will show you how to do all of the basic commands, functions, how to start up and shut down a machine/tool.

This will be semester long of learning and practicing new commands, how to mill simple features, and which part features should be done first. Repetition is the best way to learn most of the programming codes, and after that it’s just numbers. On the flip side, if you have an oddball part that is difficult to hold in vise jaws, it will require more creativity and you may not be able to machine the part conventionally. That is when you move to the next class in fixturing…


CNC II(Semester 3):

Your third semester CNC class will be more out in the shop and doing learning hands-on. You learned how to program with G and M-codes, so now it’s time to put that to use in the real world.

Lehman Engineering Labs

You will probably start out with a simple part to make, such as drilling holes in a square piece. You will have to hand-write the program, put it into the machine’s controller, set up the tools and offset, and run the part out. Over the semester you will be given more elaborate parts to make, which will build your confidence and skill the more you do it.


If you haven’t taken any CNC software training classes yet, you will be taking one now. CAD/CAM experience is very important if you want to be a programmer these days. Most of them are fairly easy to get used to. However, it is very easy to make bad programs and habits. This is why you should always learn how to manually machine parts and and hand-write programs before using a CNC machine or computer programming software. This is so you know how each part and tool will react and perform under certain circumstances. A lot of programmers have little machining experience outside of CAM/CAD software, making it hard to work with and run the job right without having to edit the programs. It’s just best if you start out at square one and learn things the right way the first time around.


While you are practicing and becoming proficient at milling and turning on both manual and CNC machines, as well as writing your own programs from start to finish, it’s time to learn about proper part fixture and tooling.

A square/rectangle part that has simple drilling and milling features can often be made with your typical 6 inch solid vise jaws. However, if you are profiling/milling the ends of a part, making a complete billet part, or have multiple operations that require a better way to clamp the piece down, simple vise jaws just won’t cut it. You need to make a fixture that can locate and clamp it with enough force without getting in the way of the cutting tools. This class will show you various ways of doing that. There is no ‘set way’ to workhold specific parts. Imagination will come into play here. “If you can think it, you can do it”.

(Semester 4):

CNC Design & Manufacturing

Two years is all it takes to get your complete AAS Degree in CNC Manufacturing, if you choose to go that far. It’s not easy for everyone, and many students drop out before getting here. But if you stick with it and enjoy it, I strongly encourage you to push through and work hard at learning as much as possible.

The CNC Design and Manufacturing class is like the grand finale. This is where you put everything together that you’ve learned on manually mills, lathes, grinders, as well as CNC mills and turning centers and manufacture your own assembly of parts from start to finish to make a functioning work of art.

You will also learn how to use additional machines, tools, and programming such as wire EDM machines, a CMM, and newer forms of programming.

Multi-Axis Machining/Programming

You can do a lot with 2 axis milling machines, but in this day and age, sometimes that just won’t cut it (pun intended). 3, 4, and 5 axis (and even swiss machining) classes are starting up in more Tech schools because they are much higher demand with bigger manufacturing companies. Multi-axis programming is definitely more difficult, but in the end, it’s all just numbers. You have to take your time, and learning how to do it efficiently and make money takes years.

If you enjoy a challenge and want to strive in the industry like I do, I also encourage you to take the opportunity of learning mult-axis machining. The more you have on your resume, the more likely a company will consider you. Although you may not be able to do the programming/work on your own right away, they see that you have some experience and they won’t have to start from scratch, saving them lots of time and money.

CNC Machinists are in high demand today, and if you are ready to start a new career, or if this is your first one, I highly recommend checking out your local Tech school!

Letter Codes List For CNC Machine Programming

If you’ve already learned all of the Preparatory and Miscellaneous function codes, it’s time to move on to the Letter codes for CNC programming. Most of the letters of the alphabet are used on milling machines.

Just like the G and M codes, not every machine uses the same Letter codes. Also, there are several letters that are used in more than one function, but that depends on the input units.

Below is a list of the most commonly used letter codes when programming on a milling center. However, I recommend reading through your machine’s manual to confirm that they have the same function, or if your machine uses different letters/codes.

  • A – Rotary or indexing axis around the X-axis (unit in degrees)
  • B – Rotary or indexing axis around the Y-axis (unit in degrees)
  • D – Cutter radius compensation offset number
  • F – Feedrate function (may vary)
  • G – Preparatory command (G-code)
  • H – Tool length offset number
  • I – Arc center modifier for X-axis (radius)
  • J – Arc center modifier for Y-axis (radius)
  • K – Arc center modifier for Z-axis
  • L – Repetition count for subprogram/fixed cycle
  • M – Miscellaneous function (M-code)
  • N – Block or sequence number
  • O – Program number
  • P – Subprogram number call; Work offset number (used with G10); Dwell time in milliseconds; Block number in main program when used with M99
  • Q – Depth of peck in fixed cycles G73 & G83; Shift amount in fixed cycle G76 & G87
  • R – Retract point in fixed cycles
  • S – Spindle speed in Rotations per minute (RPM)
  • T – Tool function
  • X – X-axis coordinate value designation
  • Y – Y-axis coordinate value designation
  • Z – Z-axis coordinate value designation

Letter Codes List For CNC Machine ProgrammingMost of these letters you will be using over and over again in your programs. A and B are used if you have a four or five axis machine, otherwise you won’t need to use them.

Some letters have multiple uses that you may have to incorporate in your program. “P”, for example, can call out the time that you want to dwell (pause) with a tool, or it can call up a subprogram number.

It’s up to you to learn these if you want to know how to create and edit programs. A lot of the letters are easy to remember, so if you already memorized all of most of the G/M codes then this is a piece of cake.

M-Codes List For CNC Machine Programming

Miscellaneous Functions is another name for M-Codes. How are they different from the G-codes in my previous post? The G-code is a preparatory command for CNC programming, which presets, or prepares, the machine to use a certain cycle or mode. An M-code is an actual machine function.

A machine function is something that the actual machine does, whether it’s turning on the spindle or ending your program. Not every machine is the same because there are many different CNC machine manufacturers, as well as different controllers, so I recommend reading through your machine’s manual to see what M-codes you can use.

  • M00 – Compulsory program stop
  • M01 – Optional stop
  • M02 – End of program (no rewind, usually with reset)
  • M03 – Spindle on (rotate CW for R/H tools)
  • M04 – Spindle on reverse (CCW for R/H tools)
  • M05 – Spindle stop
  • M06 – Automatic tool change (ATC)
  • M07 – Coolant mist ON (optional)
  • M08 – Coolant ON
  • M09 – Coolant OFF
  • M19 – Spindle orientation
  • M30 – Program end (always resets & rewinds)
  • M48 – Feedrate override cancel OFF (deactivated)
  • M49 – Feedrate override cancel ON (activated)
  • M60 – Automatic pallet change (APC)
  • M78 – B axis clamp (nonstandard)
  • M79 – B axis unclamp (nonstandard)
  • M98 – Subprogram call
  • M99 – Subprogram end

M-Codes List For CNC Machine ProgrammingUnlike a G-code, you can only use one M-code per line/block of code. Using an M03 and M04 is not possible because they do two opposite functions.

The more M-codes you try out, the more efficient you can become. M98 can significantly decrease programming and possibly cycle time because it calls up a sub-program that can be repeated over and over any given number of times.

There are more Miscellaneous functions than listed above, which are referred to as ‘machine specific codes’. You will have to learn the codes used by your individual machine and controller to get the most out of your CNC machine, whether it’s a milling or turning center.

Basic Machining Tools – Terminology

There are a lot of tools used in machining today, so it’s often hard to keep up with the names of all of them, especially if you’re new to this career. Every tool has a specific job, and while a variety of tools may be able to get the job done, some are better than others.

Just so I don’t overload you, I’ll go through a list of the most common tools used in Machine shops, as well as Machine Tech schools. Each tool has a specific purpose, and there are many different kinds of the same tool. The more tools you use, the more knowledge you will get and know what works better for a certain material or operation. However, you must get an understanding of the of machining tools before just using any specific one without knowing what it’s meant to do.

End Mill

The almighty ‘End Mill’ is one tool that you will use almost every day if you run milling machines. If you need to cut both ends of a part to get it to a certain length, and end mill will side-mill the ends to make a clean and parallel surface. It can cut out pockets, and make square or round features in a part. There is so much that you can do with an end mill on a CNC milling center.

3-Flute End Mill
3-Flute End Mill

Whether you need to rough out a large solid piece of steel, or you’re just making some finish passes on aluminum, there’s an end mill for each job and every one in between. There are many different kinds of end mills. Here are the main variables you will have to decide when ordering tools: size (diamter), length (flute length), material/coating, roughing/finishing, number of flutes, and more.


Need to drill a hole? How about a few hundred holes? While there may not be quite the selection for drills as end mills due to the fact that you can only do so much with them, there are definitely right and wrong drills for any given job. 118 degree HSS or coated drills are the most common since they work well with most basic materials. However, you may need a drill for a hard stainless job, or perhaps a copper part that requires a deep hole with a close tolerance.



There’s not much else you can do with a tap other than tapping holes. Are you doing a blind or a thru-hole? Is it a metric or a U.S. standard thread? If you’re on a mill, the most popular taps are: cut tap, roll form, spiral point/flute, as well as a thread mill.

Cut taps produce chips because they literally cut a thread into the existing hole. You must use a drill that meets the minimum diameter tolerance for the specific thread you want. They are used on thru-holes because the chips won’t get in the way of the tap.

A roll form tap does not make chips because it forms and pushes the threads into place. It’s great for blind holes because the tap won’t break from chips collecting at the bottom.


A ream is used after a drill or a bore to meet a close tolerance call-out on the blueprint. Cheap drills are far from perfect and can easily make a hole over-sized, which will be rejected if it’s not within print. However, if you drill the hole .010″-.015″ under-size, you can then use the correct size ream to get a much more accurate and consider hole.


However, you should know that a ream will not ‘fix’ a hole. A ream just follows a hole, so if it’s crooked or out of round, the tool will follow that path. This is one reason why you may need to drill the hole then use a boring bar to make it perfectly round and straight before you ream it to size.

That’s it for the basic tools on this article from CNC Machinist Training. Stay tuned for another article that explains more advanced tooling that makes it much easier to do a job…

CNC Machinist Training Requirements

Before working as a CNC Machinist, most companies require some previous experience or training. It could be getting certified at a Tech school, a certain number of years working with a number of machines and program controllers, or using specially tooling/machinery.

It really depends on the shop and what they’re looking for, but you should decide what kind of shop you’re wanting to work at in the first place so you know what to work towards.

Here’s some general requirements for each stage of a Machinist Career (Each level is a prerequisite for the next level)…

Basic Shop Helper/Student:

  • High School Diploma/Currently enrolled
  • Basic math knowledge
  • Hard worker
  • Punctual
  • Can Pass drug/background check
  • Ability to lift 30+ lbs.
  • Listens to authority
  • Quick learner and motivated

Entry Level Machinist/Operator:

  • 1-2 years of Machine trade school or previous experience
  • Ability to use basic inspection tools such as: caliper, micrometer, thread gauges
  • Be able to set tool/work offsets if needed
  • Can change out parts and properly deburr
  • Operate a band-saw
  • Occasional light assembly
  • Able to interpret blueprints

Mid-level CNC Machinist:

  • 3-5 years of previous machining experience and/or schooling in Machine Trades
  • Ability to do to set-ups on CNC milling machine or CNC Lathe
  • Ability to program and edit programs if needed
  • Some experience with CAD/CAM software preferred (depends on the position)
  • Ability to inspect own parts with proper tools
  • Math/Basic trigonometry skills
  • Basic knowledge of feeds and speeds for materials

Lead Machinist:

  • Good communication/interaction skills
  • Proficient in troubleshooting machine and program problems/alarms
  • 5 or more years of previous experience
  • Ability to teach and train new employees on machine operating, set-ups
  • Certified and experience with fork-lift operation
  • Report all maintenance and important issues to Manager
  • Understand the capabilities and limitations of each machine
  • Be a leader and organized

CNC Programmer/Engineer:

  • 2-5+ years of previous programming experience with CAD/CAM software (Gibbs,Surf,Bob,Mastercam,Solidworks,etc.)
  • Complete understanding of machine usage and programming G & M codes
  • Awareness of cutting tool technology
  • Complete understanding of work-holding strategies
  • Ability to make/utilize work fixtures with simple and complex parts
  • Strong tooling knowledge, as well as optimum feeds and speeds for each job
  • Ability to program for different machines; mill/lathe/4th axis/live tooling (if required)

CNC Machinist Training RequirementsNow not all of these are going to be the exact requirements for the job you’re applying for. However, it is important that you experience and can do all or most of the above in the given category for the job you want.

The more you know, the more your future employer will consider you. Having a strong resume doesn’t always get you the job, but it can help you get the wage/salary that you deserve based on your skill level.