Absolute Vs. Incremental – CNC Programming

To be able to write and edit programs, you must know when and how to use Absolute and Incremental modes effectively. More programs are in absolute, but there are times when it’s easier to use incremental.

There are major differences between to the two, so if you don’t know how each one works, don’t start programming until you read this. Mixing the two up can and will cause a disaster

What Is Absolute?

When programming in absolute, all of your coordinates and movement values will come from the origin (0,0) point. If you want to be in Absolute, the G-code that defines this is G90, which is a modal code.

Absolute Programming
Absolute Dimensioning

Most CNC programs are written in absolute because it is easier to understand. Why is it easier, you ask? Because if you have a lot of coordinates to move, you always know where the center of the tool is in relation to the work offset.

What Is Incremental?

How is Incremental different from Absolute? Well, instead of all of your coordinates/numbers coming from one location (0,0 offset), each move is the distance from your current location. That means if you want 2 holes that are 4.000″ apart and start 4.000″ from your start location, you would use X4.0 twice, as opposed to using X4.0 and then X8.0 for the second hole if you were to use Absolute. G91 is the G-code that puts you in Incremental mode, and it is modal as well.

Incremental Programming
Incremental Dimensioning

Which one is better? That depends on what you’re doing, but 99% of the time Absolute programming will be easier. If you’re hand-programming, it may require a little more math, depending on how the blueprint is laid out, but it will be much easier to go back and read or edit the program if there is a mistake.

In G90 (absolute), no matter where your tool is, you can always go move to a certain location by inputting those coordinates, such as X1.625Y-.875. However, if you’re in G91, you can’t just punch those numbers in if your tool is somewhere other than the origin. If you put in those coordinates, your tool will move a positive 1.625 in the X direction, and a negative .875 in the Y direction from where it currently is.

So, how do you get to that location in G91? You have to know where you tool is, then add or subtract the distance of the location from where it is relative to the origin. You see now why incremental can be very confusing? If you’re in G91 and have dozens, or even hundreds of moves, one mistake in the middle of the program and all of the following numbers will be skewed because they all come from the previous location.

On the flip side, you can alternate between G90 and G91. If it’s easier to use incremental for a few moves, use G91, then when you want to go back to absolute, just put a G90 on the line of the next move.

What Is A ‘Billet’ CNC Machined Part?

When you hear the words “Billet Aluminum” or “CNC Billet Machined”, what comes to mind? Usually people think of shiny and intricate parts. They can be ‘bling’ parts for automotive toys, such as snowmobile or ATV parts, or it can be something that is an upgrade from an oem part.

So, what is the difference between billet and… well, not billet? If it’s not a billet part, then it’s probably cast, which can also be machined afterwards. An example of a billet part would be something completely machined from a square piece of stock; no casting or forging involved. Billet does not only mean it’s made out of aluminum, although it is the most commonly known material for it. You can also make a billet steel, copper, stainless, or brass part.

Pros?

There are several advantages to making a billet part, both over cast as well as forged. The biggest advantage of machining is the accuracy and consistency. A CNC Milling center can hold much tighter tolerances than a mold or forging metal into a part. If you need a precise part, such as small gun pieces, CNC billet parts are the way to go.

Billet Aluminum Dirt Bike Engine Case
Billet Aluminum Dirt Bike Engine Case

However, it is depends on the company/machinist that is making the parts. If they are done right, all tolerances will be met, it will look “pretty”, and it can be just as strong, if not stronger, than a cast or forged piece.

Cons?

While it is easier to hold tighter tolerances, machining a billet part takes more time than casting or even forging a part. Once the mold is made, you can make parts in minutes, if not seconds! Set-up time is very costly, and setting up a CNC milling center or turning center can take hours. However, the more parts you run at a time, the more it will offset the set-up cost. That still doesn’t take away the cycle times and cost of tooling.

Compared to forged, it isn’t always as strong because the parts are literally ‘forged’ into place. However, you can take a forged part and machine extra features on it if you have a tight tolerance.

In the end, it comes down to what you need. Each kind of part has their own advantages. Billet pieces look really nice, can be made to hold precise dimensions, and as a result they may function better than a cast or forged piece.

Machine Shop Rates – What’s the Average Hourly Rate

If you want win in this competitive market, you have to be on top of your game by being efficient. Depending on what kind of jobs you’re running, you want to run the best equipment and tools for it, as well as utilizing them properly.

Fortunately, this doesn’t mean you need to buy the most expensive machine. As a general rule, the more complex the part, the more you’ll have to spend on precision equipment. On the flip side, you can charge more because it takes more time and money to run the job.

What Machines Are In The Shop?

There are a lot of factors that can determine the hourly rate of a shop. Shops that can utilize bigger are more powerful machines will generally charge more because the overhead costs are higher, and they can do more than just a small job shop with lesser machines.

What Kind of Shop Is It?

Comparing hourly rates of job shops and production shops can vary greatly. Running production is usually a larger shop with big machines that can run dozens or even hundreds of parts at a time. Efficiency is very important, and rates will often be higher. However, the orders can be started and finished in a fraction of time.

Smaller job shops that do more prototype parts and small batches are usually a little cheaper. However, the cost per part can be quite a bit higher because set-up time is expensive. The more parts you run, the lower the cost-per-part will be.

Quality or Quantity?

Just because a shop has bigger and more powerful CNC machines does not mean it is a better shop. A small 3 man shop can be head and shoulders above a 20,000 square foot machining shop as far as quality goes. In order to meet or exceed the customer’s request, there must be at least one machinist in the shop that knows how to do that. You can’t just make a program on a CAD/CAM system, load it onto the machine and expect everything to run perfectly. In fact, programming is sometimes one of the easiest part of machining.

The difficult part is making a fixture that properly holds the part, choosing the right tools for the part (size, length, material), as well as speeds and feeds that will be the most efficient (shorter cycle times are good, but if you’re burning through tools every few parts, you’re spending more on tools and down time because you have to stop running the machine and set a new one up; Time = Money). Some characteristics of a well rounded and skilled machinist can be found here.

Lets See Some Numbers!

Currie Engineering
Currie Engineering

So, you want to see some actual dollar amounts for machine shop rates… There’s a few different ranges of numbers, and as a general rule, you get what you pay for. $40-55/hour is considered cheap in the manufacturing industry, and while you may be able to find a local shop that has a rate that low, their work will probably reflect. However, if you need to make parts with wide open tolerances, you can save a lot of money going to a company that is 48 bucks an hour. Manual mills and lathes may be the majority of machines found in a shop like this.

60 to 80 dollars per hour is the average machine shop rate in most parts of the U.S.. Electricity is and overhead costs play an important role in what a shop is charging. However, the most important factor would be quality and type of shop. Prototype and short run parts are expensive due to set-up times. If you need to make a part with tight tolerances, that will greatly narrow the choices down. The shops that are able to make high precision and good looking parts know that, and are able to charge more because other shops can’t compete with their quality.

If you were wondering about the top dollar shops, there are some out there that charge $100/hour and beyond. Why? Along with the above mentioned, the high cost is because they are large shops with multi-million dollar machines that produce a high overhead to run, including well-experienced machinists that often get paid a better wage because of their expertise. It may seem ridiculous if you’re new to the career, but if you add up all of the expenses of machines operating, tools, inspection equipment, coolant and chemicals, electricity, and obviously the machinists/programmers themselves. After adding all those numbers up, they shouldn’t be more than what the company is making per hour, especially if the owner wants to make a profit.

In the end, it really depends on the kind of work that is being done. The higher precision and meticulous that stand strongly behind their quality will charge more, but if you have fussy parts, it is well worth the cost as opposed to rejecting the same part from a lesser shop that can’t meet the tolerances.

CNC Software For Machining – What Is The Best CAD/CAM System?

If you want to be a programmer or make your own parts some day, you’ll want to get a good software for CNC machining. There are a lot of different systems out there, but you don’t always need the biggest and baddest one if you can make your parts with a cheaper software.

CAD vs. CAM??

First of all, lets answer this question on CAD versus CAM systems. CAD programs are used mainly for making part drawings, blueprints, and make an overall model for the part you are going to machine. CAD is for generating toolpaths for the designed part. This is usually with G-codes and M-codes. Why do I need these, you ask? Well, to be honest, you don’t. You don’t even need any kind of software for machining. That is, unless, you don’t want to write everything by hand.

Lets face it, technology has skyrocketed in the past few decades, and even in the last 5-10 years, efficiency and quality are in high demand. China still can’t compete with USA made stuff, but for everyone to start buying from the United States again, companies want to buy parts and tools at a Chinese price tag. In order to bring the cost down, efficiency is extremely important, and this doesn’t just include programming a part (Read more about this on my Keys To Being A Good Machinist post).

Computer-Aided-Design

In order to be efficient, buying a CAM system may be necessary if you get a lot of blueprints and drawings. You will be able to make part drawings, fixtures, and jigs, which can also help reduce set-up times (the ultimate money maker/loser).

You can draw 3D models of parts to see different views of it, which can help the programmer when making toolpaths for it. With Cad software, you can put pieces together with an Assembly feature. With this, you can see what it looks like when the part is in the fixture you also designed. You’ll be able to determine what tools to use and how to optimize the set-up before you even start cutting metal.

There’s a lot of CAD systems out there for CNC machining, but if you’re running a real machine shop and need to be competitive, you’ll have to shell out some dough to get one. Free software will not get you very far, which is why it’s free. However, you may be able to get a free trial for paid software, which I recommend if you have the time. The most popular CAD systems include: Solidworks, AutoDesk Inventor, BobCAD,

Computer-Aided-Manufacturing

When used together, Cam and Cad software can be a powerful combo because they save time, which relates to money. If you have to hog out a billet part, writing out a program on the machine or by hand can take hours, and sometimes days if the part is large and/or complex. While I believe that you should be able to hand-write CNC programs first, CAM software can make almost any part in a fraction of time.

In the system itself, once you have the part model loaded, you don’t even have to write any kind of code; the computer does it for you! Let me explain… Lets say you have a 2 x 2″ square part that you want to mill down to a height of 1.5″. In the CAD program, you set the stock size and where the offsets will be (X, Y, Z zero). Once you have that, you pick the tool you want to use (we’ll just pick a 3″ face mill for this operation). Then you pick what kind of toolpath you want it to run; there’s a lot of options for this, but we’re just milling off the top. After that, it’s just setting your parameters for where you want the tool to start and end, how much material to take off, how much you want to take off each pass, and what you want it to do after the operation.

There are so many things you can do with a modern day CAM system that it can be rather intimidating to someone that hasn’t used one before. If you get a training book or have an experienced programmer teach you, starting out will make things a lot easier. The more time you get on the software, the more you’ll figure out what you can do with it, which will help reduce operation times, as well as being able to make more complex parts.

Mastercam is one of the most popular CAM systems because it is easy to use and is fairly versatile. Surfcam, BobCAD, EdgeCam, and RhinoCAM are also great software for machining. It also depends on what you’re machining as well. Are you just doing 2-axis milling? 5 axis? Turning on a lathe? Live tooling? Doing a little research will help you find out the advantages of each CNC software system.

When it comes down to it, it really depends on how comfortable and experienced you are at using a CAD/CAM system, as well as how complex your parts are going to be. If you’re just using a 2-3 axis vertical milling center or a CNC lathe, you will more than likely be able to do everything you want on them with a more inexpensive software. Finding one that is easy to use should be high on the list if you’re just starting out. However, this can be a compromise that will hold you back when you want to do more technical operations.

 

What Is The Key To Being A Good Machinist?

Do you want to be a “Button Pusher” for the rest of your life?? Some people don’t have any motivation in life, so they continue doing the same old job in a machine shop for years, or possibly decades. But, if you’re like me, you want to keep moving up in the industry. To do that you have to have some natural ability, but more importantly, you have to be willing to work hard and learn from wiser machinists.

Starting out at the very bottom (yes, I mean sweeping the floor of your local machine shop) is where some of the best machinists alive today started when they were in high school. If you’re a good worker and your boss sees that you have some potential, you will get promoted. Trust me. It may take several months, or even a couple years, but eventually you’ll work your way to running and setting up machines if you have the desire.

Feeds and Speeds

If you want to be an independent CNC machinist, you HAVE TO know your feeds and speeds. In a production shop, most of their money is made by perfecting the speeds and feeds of each individual job. If you can save a few minutes here and there, or even seconds, it all adds up, especially if you are making hundreds of thousands of the same parts. Time is money in a machine shop, and if you aren’t efficient, you aren’t making money.

Which leads us to our next topic…

Fixture and Tooling

Making a part/programming is usually the easy part. Making a fixture and selecting the right tooling that will make the job run as efficient as possible is not always easy. Some jobs require special jigs, fixtures, clamps, or something exotic to hold the parts. The tighter the tolerances, the better the fixture has to be made.

The difference between using cheap tooling that works and the right tooling that is more expensive but performs better will be huge. In a job shop every minute counts, so if buying an end mill that costs twice as much as normal will last ten times as long and allow you to cut faster, it could mean the difference between making money and losing money.

Knowing what type of end mill, drill, or tap for a 303-stainless part will come with time and experience. Not only do you have to have the right tool for the job, but starting with the correct surface foot is key. Once you get a job set-up that is running 100% with no problems, then you can start optimizing the feeds and speeds.

Problem Solver

Can you come up to a problem with little to no knowledge of what was done by the previous person and fix it within a reasonable time? Machining requires problem solving almost every day, whether the previous person on the machine messed up a set-up and left a mess for you, or you’re programming a new part and the tool keeps breaking. Like everything else, with more experience, you will be able to solve more problems. Eventually you will come up to a problem that you’ve seen more than once before and know exactly what to do.

Be Teachable

Are you hard to get along with and known as a “know-it-all”? Sorry about your luck, but you probably won’t get very far in this industry with that mindset. Machine shops run the best when everyone helps each other out. No matter what you think, there will almost always be someone that knows more than you. So if they try and correct you on something you’re doing wrong, pay attention and thank them. Watch how they do things and try to learn as much as possible from them. This will help in the long run for everyone, and especially yourself if you want to move up in this industry, which will ultimately lead to higher wages.

This Is An Underpaid Profession

For what you have to know, many CNC Machinist positions are not paid enough. Before I go any further, I want to point out that anyone can make a living as a machinist if he/she puts forth the effort, especially with overtime hours. If I were to go over all the details of what all you have to know to be a true CNC Machinist that can virtually run a shop, it would be the size of a novel, and I don’t have time for that right now.

After you get your feet wet in a shop after getting some machinist experience, you’ll quickly realize what it takes to be able to make a part from start to finish. And if there’s any problems on the way, a machinist has to know how to solve it quickly to be able to make positive cash-flow.

CNC Machine Shop – What Is In It?

While every machine shop is different, you’ll see similar set-ups when you walk through them. There will usually be the main area where all of the CNC milling or turning centers are, as well as a section to deburr parts. Sometimes there will be deburring tools/machines next to the machine you’re running if the operator does all of the deburring.

Usually in a different area there will be a stock room with all of the raw materials needed for upcoming jobs. These few rooms or areas make up a CNC Machine Shop, which is usually a large industrial or steel building, as well as a small pole barn or garage, depending on how big the company is.

Stock Room

Round stock, square stock, and tubing are the most common, and they are usually 8 or 12 foot bars in length. There should also be a band saw in this same room so that someone can cut up the right size stock for each job. Most shops have an automatic horizontal band-saws so that they can cut a large quantity of parts in a short period of time with relatively close tolerances.

Machines

Machine Shop
Machine Shop

Depending on what kind of a machine shop you’re in, there’s a lot of milling machines that could be running. While milling and turning centers are the most common, there’s many more machines, as well as different variations of each.

A shop can have vertical or horizontal milling centers, depending on how complex their parts on, and if they’re a job shop or a production shop. Vertical mills are the most common because they’re cheaper and easier to use and set up.

Lathes are pretty similar, but they can be a flat-bed, slant-bed, multi-axis, or have live tooling for special jobs.

Other machines include, but not limited to: Wire EDM, waterjet, press brake, turret punch, CNC laser, as well as miscellaneous deburring machines (tumbler, straightliner, grinders).

Deburring

Like mentioned above, there will be some deburring tools/machines if the company wants to save money by doing all or most of it themselves. Often times there will be a drill press and grinder next to each mill so the operator can do most of the deburring right there in between cycle times.

The higher quality and quantity the parts, the bigger and better the deburring equipment will be. Giant tumblers/vibratory tubs are often used in large production shops for basic deburring. Media blasting is also common for parts if they are to be plated or coating with something. Zinc, chromate, anodizing, hardcoat/powdercoat, and nickel are just a few coatings that are done to machined parts to give them a better look, last longer, and/or function different.

Inspection Room

Clean Inspection Room
Clean Inspection Room

The inspection room should be separate and enclosed from the shop. If parts have close tolerances, there will be expensive inspection equipment, and the room will be temperature controlled so all of the readings are accurate and consistent.

Tools will include: a granite surface plate, height gage, CMM, bore gage, go/no-go gages for specific jobs, optical comparator, profilometer, thread gages, and gage pins. Not every job will have all of these tools, but some will have more.

Depending on how big the shop is, you (the Machinist), may or may not be inspecting your own parts. The more machines and tools you learn how to use, the better off you will be, so try to get in on how to use the equipment if there is an inspector at your shop.

Well, that’s the jist of what a CNC Shop has on the inside of it! Check out my other articles for tips on becoming a CNC Machinist. Stay tuned for more…

Machinist Square – What Shape Are Your Parts?

If you’re a new or home machinist, learning how to “square your parts” is one of the first things you should learn. There’s quite a few common tools that a machinist should have in their toolbox, and a Machinist Square is one of them.

Learning how to machine a part on a manual milling machine should be one of the first things in school. Eventually you will need to make parts with tighter tolerances, and flatness/perpendicularity are a big part of it. If your parts are trapezoidal because of tool deflection, I can guarantee that your parts will be rejected.

Machinist Square Set
Machinist Square Set

A good machinist square should be perpendicular/flat within .0002″ tolerance, and should be periodically calibrated so that it stays within spec. However, some squares have a different rating that depends on how accurate they are. A & B are the most common, with B being for the average consumer that doesn’t need extremely close tolerance parts.

A is the higher grade, and while it will cost more, it is what you will want for machining. Don’t skimp out and get the cheapest one you can find. You get what you pay for, and in CNC manufacturing these days, you want every advantage possible.

If you drop it and can see a dent or bend in it, it’s worthless. That’s why it’s critical that you take care of not only a machinist square, but all of your machining tools.

Click Here To Buy My Machinist Square!

Machinery’s Handbook – Every Day Machinist Tool

If you want to be any kind of a Machinist, or an Engineer for that matter, the first tool you should buy is the latest Edition of the Machinery’s Handbook. It is chalk-full of information, formulas, charts, and many other things that you will use on a daily bases.

The first edition was published back in 1914 for mechanical engineering and practical shop mechanics. Every few years a new edition is published with more/updated information about mathematics, formulas, materials, threading, and many other things involved in machining.

Any time you need to find a thread size/pitch, surface foot for a material, or just a mechanical formula for machining, this book covers more of that than any other book out there. For such a small amount of cash, you’d be losing without it.

Need to solve a trig problem? How about calculating thread dimensions? The machinery handbook is an engineer’s or machinist’s dictionary, and is filled with endless content that is relatively easy to find.

Machinery's Handbook - 29th

It may seem difficult to find things at first, but after using it a few times you will start to remember where each chart and specific pages are.

The 29th is the latest edition of this handbook and it just came out within two years ago. Do you need the latest edition? No. If you already have one that’s recent, there is not a NEED to get one. However, if you want to be updated on the latest threads, formulas, charts, and other new information that is coming out yearly, it would be a good idea to buy the latest version. Besides, it’s only about the cost of one half-inch end mill these days…

Click Here To Buy My Machinery’s Handbook

Roll Forming Taps Vs. Cutting Thread Taps On A CNC Mill

This is a question that comes up quite often for machinists new to the industry, and even experienced machinists that don’t know a lot about tapping. While form taps and cut taps can both do the same job, which is making a threaded internal hole in a part, they are quite a bit different in how they work.

After using both kind of taps for a while, you’ll see the difference in looks right away. A cut tap doesn’t have a full thread until about the third time around, while a form tap looks the same from bottom to top. A cut tap also has clearance cut around the tool so that chips will move out of the way and not break it.

Cut Tap

Tapping with cut taps has been the most popular for decades because that’s what there was available. They are easy to use; just drill the hole with the correct tap drill size, making sure you go deep enough so that the tap will get enough threads, then run the tap into the hole. Depending on your machine’s capabilities and what material you’re running, you may only be able to run it at 200-300 RPM.

Rigid tapping is a very useful option on newer CNC Mills such as a Haas. It allows you to tap at higher RPM without putting so much load on your spindle. This equates to much faster tapping cycle times.

A cutting tap is great for thru-holes, as you won’t have to dig into the hole to pull out the chips. You also won’t have to worry about running into anything unless your table or fixture is under the hole.

Since this type of tap “cuts” threads into the hole, you can get away with using various coolants and mixtures without breaking tools, especially on soft materials like aluminum.

Form Tap

Form Tap vs. Cut Tap
Form Tap vs. Cut Tap

What’s better about form taps? Well, they have several advantages over cut taps that will make you want to use them more often. For one, they don’t make any chips. A form tap does just that, it “forms” the threads in the hole with pressure, as opposed to “cutting” threads.

That brings us to the next advantage; the threads are much stronger because they are “formed” into place. If you need strong threads in your parts, form taps are the way to go.

Form taps are stronger and will last longer than cut taps. This will save you time and money in the long run, as you won’t have as many taps breaking in your parts.

Not only will everything be stronger, but you can run at faster speeds, greatly reducing cycle times.

With all of these advantages, there’s gotta be some downfall, right?! Well, due to the higher pressure on the tool and part hole, it will require some better coolant or oil with high lubricity. If your coolant isn’t good enough, the tap will be have to work harder to form the threaded hole and eventually will break.

This is especially true on small form taps such as an M3 (Metric), as there just isn’t enough space for the average coolant to lube the tap. You need something with better lubricity that will reduce the load on the tool. Also, if your countersink isn’t big enough, the first thread will be pushed up above the material’s surface and will cause interference if it’s a mating part.

Other than that, there really isn’t much else to say about form taps. Sometimes you just have to experiment until you find out what works the best. If your tap keeps breaking, change it up with different speeds, coolant, or a different tap.

CNC Programming Training

CNC Programmer Training Requirements

In order to become a CNC programmer, you must have extensive knowledge and experience as a machinist and troubleshooter. Programs are written in G-codes and M-codes, but modern CAM/CAD software has made it easier to perform complex and precise operations. Depending on how quickly you catch on, it can take years to learn how to program parts from start to finish. You must know the ins-and-outs of machining; how machines work, how materials react, what kind of cuts to make, what tools to use and how to use them, how to order the operations, and the list goes on.

Machinists use to mill, cut, drill, and form parts on a manual machine. This resulted in much slower and less-than-consistent parts, depending on who was running the machine. However, being able to machine parts on a manual mill and lathe will greatly help you understand on how to program parts in the future. I also strongly recommend that you learn how to hand write your programs before delving into CAM/CAD software. It will take longer to learn, but being able to edit/fix your program after it is written on software is priceless.

The time of programming training you need depends on the machine shop you’re working in and how complex the parts are. A shop that makes fairly simple parts on 3-axis CNC mills will require much less training than a shop that does 4 or 5+ axis milling.

Most machinists learn on the job over the years from more experienced people and work their way up the ladder.

What Are the Benefits of Becoming a CNC Programmer?CNC Programming Training (2)

There’s several good reasons why you should train and work hard to become a programmer. Yes, it is more demanding with an increase in pressure, but what higher paying jobs aren’t?

The first reason is obvious, as you will be getting paid more than a machine operator. This reason alone is worth the time spent learning and practicing how to program. Learn from the best and you’ll be the best.

Second, it will open up more possibilities in the future if you plan on moving some place else. It’s always good to add things to your resume, and more companies will consider you with programming experience under your belt.

Another reason to train to become a cnc programmer is because you won’t be doing the dirty grunt work. No more cutting stock, deburring parts, or getting filthy from all the oils and dust. Programming is usually done in a separate room or part of the building that is clean with computers.

Where Do I Get CNC Programming Training?

If you are already on the job as a machinist, the best way to learn how to program is by “shadowing” someone that already knows how and is willing to teach you over time. If you have an experienced co-worker that has the ability to do that, take every advantage of that as you can!

That, and taking classes at your local Tech school are going to be the easiest ways to get trained in. If you have the time, it might be worth it to check your local Technical school for CNC Programming courses. There you will get hands-on work, and you will learn new things faster since you will be working on it every day.

Another possible way of learning how to program is with a Programming Training Software. If you are good at learning things on your own, this may be the best route for you, as you can train on your own time. It’s cheaper than going to school, and you can always go back and re-learn things. However, if you are someone that asks a lot of questions and needs a mentor, this may not be for you.

Click Here To Buy My CNC Programming Handbook. I have found this book to be the most resourceful as far as programming goes. Everything you need to know about programming 3-axis parts is in this book.